Page 13 - Old Tales of Sorcery Remembered
ISSUE : Issue 30
Published by Ronald Caplan on 1981/12/1
French Catholics who had decided to become Protestant and are known as Huguenots. They eventually made up 10% of the popula? tion of France, and while they came from the entire range of social positions--from noblemen to peasants--"Protestantism in France drew its strength mainly from the urban middle class" (see Scovi'lle, The Per? secution of Huguenots and French Economic Development). The Huguenots suffered as a religious mi? nority in France. The conflicts arose dur? ing the Reformation (16th century)--dating in France from when Lefevre d'Staples translated the Bible into French, and John Calvin (at Geneva) propelled Luther's idea of spiritual individualism into a concept of political-religious Protestant communi? ties that (in predominantly Catholic France) threatened the central power of the monarchy. In France, Huguenot religion was heresy and all that implies. They were a prominent, visible, and economically pow? erful minority. Out of a variety of at? tempts to destroy them, convert them, or work out some compromise, came eight relig? ious wars, including the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572--an apparently local? ized attack that was taken as a signal to kill Protestants first throughout Paris, and then across France. Adversity apparent? ly strengthened the Huguenots, and their numbers grew. In 1598, Henry IV (a Protes? tant who chose to become a Catholic for the nation's peace) signed the Edict of Nantes, guaranteeing among other things the rights of freedom of conscience, pub? lic worship, to hold public office, to at? tend universities, and even to maintain armed forces to defend specified Protes? tant cities. Essentially, this resulted in nearly 100 years of internal peace. De? tails aside for now, the edict was revoked by Louis XIV in 1685, and intolerance, de? mands for Protestant-held lands, cries of heresy and so forth, resurfaced. It led to the high point in Huguenot emigration from France. To back up, it was six years after the E- dict of Nantes, and unrelated to that e- dict, that in 1604 the first French settle? ment in Acadia was attempted on an island at the mouth of the St. Croix River. A dis? astrous winter was passed. In 1605 they crossed the Bay of Fundy and established permanent settlement at Port Royal in what would become Nova Scotia. We tend to think ,of the Acadians as French Catholic, but Na? omi Griffiths (in her book The Acadians: Creation of a People) says they included Scotch, Basque, and Irish, both Protestant and Catholic. Again, we will not try to de? tail here the history of Acadians, except to say that they emerge as a people who find themselves holding enviable farm land, eventually carrying on trade with both Eng? land and France, while England and France were in varying states of aggression. With a mixture of conscience and pragmatism, the Acadians tried to hold themselves a- part. They tried to give their loyalty to neither, awaiting the outcome of English- French hostilities. As we know, time ran out on them and they were dispersed by the English beginning in 1755. To return to the Huguenots: in 1685 Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, and with it the rights and protections assured the Protestants. Even before that revocation. Huguenots had been leaving France, emigrat? ing to countries that welcomed them: prin? cipally Ireland, Holland, England, Germany,- and Switzerland. After the revocation. SEASON'S GREETINGS! Ingrahams United Ltd. 213 Commercial St., North Sydney, N. S. B2A 1B5 Telephone 794-4536 General Dealers • Clothing for the Whole Family ATLANTIC SPRING & MACHINE CO.. LTD. 564-5559 - 40 Kings Road, Sydney - 564-5550 General Machine Shop & Forge, Mining Equipment, Mar? ine Repairs, Welders, Automotive Springs, Fasteners For all your travel needs. American Express Travel Service ' have your place in the sun J.A.Ycxjng&Son; 181 Charlotte Street Sydney, N.S. 539-'800 • Book plane tickets • Arrange complete vacations • Sellt cash or refund American Express? Travelers Cheques • Offer complete business travel service • Help at destination We want to be your travel agent. • Reserve hotel space • Provide rental cars and limousines • Provide American Express pay'later plans (for American Express? Cardmembers) • A unique combination of travel financial services 'ofo' Ycxing's Travel in V foolco fwmm Woolco Department Store Sydney River 562-5553 Don't kave home without ve Bcpresantative
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